Bill Gates The 2nd Billionaire 2010 (FORBES)
Bill Gates at the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2007
|Born||October 28, 1955 (1955-10-28) (age 54)
Seattle, Washington, USA
|Residence||1835 73rd Ave NE, Medina, WA 98039|
|Alma mater||Harvard University (dropped out in 1975)|
|Occupation||Chairman of Microsoft (non-executive)
Co-Chair of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Director of Berkshire Hathaway
CEO of Cascade Investment
|Net worth||▲US$53 billion (2010)|
|Spouse(s)||Melinda Gates (1994–present)|
|Parents||William H. Gates, Sr.
Mary Maxwell Gates
William Henry “Bill” Gates III KBE(born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, philanthropist, author and chairman of Microsoft, the software company he founded with Paul Allen. He is consistently ranked among the world’s wealthiest people and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009, excluding 2008, when he was ranked third. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder with more than 8 percent of the common stock. He has also authored or co-authored several books.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Although he is admired by many, a number of industry insiders criticize his business tactics, which they consider anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts (see Criticism of Microsoft). In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.
Bill Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie, chief software architect and Craig Mundie, chief research and strategy officer. Gates’ last full-time day at Microsoft was June 27, 2008. He remains at Microsoft as non-executive chairman.
Gates resides in Medina, Washington.
Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, to William H. Gates, Sr. and Mary Maxwell Gates, of English, German, and Scottish-Irish descent. His family was upper middle class; his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way, and her father, J. W. Maxwell, was a national bank president. Gates has one elder sister, Kristi (Kristianne), and one younger sister, Libby. He was the fourth of his name in his family, but was known as William Gates III or “Trey” because his father had dropped his own “III” suffix. Early on in his life, Gates’ parents had a law career in mind for him.
At 13 he enrolled in the Lakeside School, an exclusive preparatory school. When he was in the eighth grade, the Mothers Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School’s rummage sale to buy an ASR-33 teletype terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric (GE) computer for the school’s students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC and was excused from math classes to pursue his interest. He wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine and how it would always execute software code perfectly. When he reflected back on that moment, he commented on it and said, “There was just something neat about the machine.” After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC), which banned four Lakeside students—Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans—for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC’s software in exchange for computer time. Rather than use the system via teletype, Gates went to CCC’s offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in FORTRAN, LISP, and machine language. The arrangement with CCC continued until 1970, when the company went out of business. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school’s computer program to schedule students in classes. He modified the code so that he was placed in classes with mostly female students. He later stated that “it was hard to tear myself away from a machine at which I could so unambiguously demonstrate success.” At age 17, Gates formed a venture with Allen, called Traf-O-Data, to make traffic counters based on the Intel 8008 processor. In early 1973, Bill Gates served as a congressional page in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Gates graduated from Lakeside School in 1973. He scored 1590 out of 1600 on the SAT and enrolled at Harvard College in the autumn of 1973. While at Harvard, he met Steve Ballmer, who later succeeded Gates as CEO of Microsoft, and computer scientist Christos Papadimitriou, with whom he wrote a paper about pancake sorting. He did not have a definite study plan while a student at Harvard and spent a lot of time using the school’s computers. He remained in contact with Paul Allen, joining him at Honeywell during the summer of 1974. The following year saw the release of the MITS Altair 8800 based on the Intel 8080 CPU, and Gates and Allen saw this as the opportunity to start their own computer software company. He had talked this decision over with his parents, who were supportive of him after seeing how much Gates wanted to start a company.
After reading the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800, Gates contacted Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), the creators of the new microcomputer, to inform them that he and others were working on a BASIC interpreter for the platform. In reality, Gates and Allen did not have an Altair and had not written code for it; they merely wanted to gauge MITS’s interest. MITS president Ed Roberts agreed to meet them for a demo, and over the course of a few weeks they developed an Altair emulator that ran on a minicomputer, and then the BASIC interpreter. The demonstration, held at MITS’s offices in Albuquerque, was a success and resulted in a deal with MITS to distribute the interpreter as Altair BASIC. Paul Allen was hired into MITS, and Gates took a leave of absence from Harvard to work with Allen at MITS in Albuquerque in November 1975. They named their partnership “Micro-Soft” and had their first office located in Albuquerque. Within a year, the hyphen was dropped, and on November 26, 1976, the trade name “Microsoft” was registered with the Office of the Secretary of the State of New Mexico. Gates never returned to Harvard to complete his studies.
Microsoft’s BASIC was popular with computer hobbyists, but Gates discovered that a pre-market copy had leaked into the community and was being widely copied and distributed. In February 1976, Gates wrote an Open Letter to Hobbyists in the MITS newsletter saying that MITS could not continue to produce, distribute, and maintain high-quality software without payment. This letter was unpopular with many computer hobbyists, but Gates persisted in his belief that software developers should be able to demand payment. Microsoft became independent of MITS in late 1976, and it continued to develop programming language software for various systems. The company moved from Albuquerque to its new home in Bellevue, Washington on January 1, 1979.
During Microsoft’s early years, all employees had broad responsibility for the company’s business. Gates oversaw the business details, but continued to write code as well. In the first five years, he personally reviewed every line of code the company shipped, and often rewrote parts of it as he saw fit.
In 1980, IBM approached Microsoft to write the BASIC interpreter for its upcoming personal computer, the IBM PC. When IBM’s representatives mentioned that they needed an operating system, Gates referred them to Digital Research (DRI), makers of the widely used CP/M operating system. IBM’s discussions with Digital Research went poorly, and they did not reach a licensing agreement. IBM representative Jack Sams mentioned the licensing difficulties during a subsequent meeting with Gates and told him to get an acceptable operating system. A few weeks later Gates proposed using 86-DOS (QDOS), an operating system similar to CP/M that Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products (SCP) had made for hardware similar to the PC. Microsoft made a deal with SCP to become the exclusive licensing agent, and later the full owner, of 86-DOS. After adapting the operating system for the PC, Microsoft delivered it to IBM as PC-DOS in exchange for a one-time fee of $50,000. Gates did not offer to transfer the copyright on the operating system, because he believed that other hardware vendors would clone IBM’s system. They did, and the sales of MS-DOS made Microsoft a major player in the industry.
Gates oversaw Microsoft’s company restructuring on June 25, 1981, which re-incorporated the company in Washington state and made Gates President of Microsoft and the Chairman of the Board.
Microsoft launched its first retail version of Microsoft Windows on November 20, 1985, and in August, the company struck a deal with IBM to develop a separate operating system called OS/2. Although the two companies successfully developed the first version of the new system, mounting creative differences undermined the partnership. Gates distributed an internal memo on May 16, 1991, announcing that the OS/2 partnership was over and Microsoft would shift its efforts to the Windows NT kernel development.
From Microsoft’s founding in 1975 until 2006, Gates had primary responsibility for the company’s product strategy. He aggressively broadened the company’s range of products, and wherever Microsoft achieved a dominant position he vigorously defended it.
As an executive, Gates met regularly with Microsoft’s senior managers and program managers. Firsthand accounts of these meetings describe him as verbally combative, berating managers for perceived holes in their business strategies or proposals that placed the company’s long-term interests at risk. He often interrupted presentations with such comments as, “That’s the stupidest thing I’ve ever heard!” and, “Why don’t you just give up your options and join the Peace Corps?” The target of his outburst then had to defend the proposal in detail until, hopefully, Gates was fully convinced. When subordinates appeared to be procrastinating, he was known to remark sarcastically, “I’ll do it over the weekend.”
Gates’s role at Microsoft for most of its history was primarily a management and executive role. However, he was an active software developer in the early years, particularly on the company’s programming language products. He has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100 line, but wrote code as late as 1989 that shipped in the company’s products. On June 15, 2006, Gates announced that he would transition out of his day-to-day role over the next two years to dedicate more time to philanthropy. He divided his responsibilities between two successors, placing Ray Ozzie in charge of day-to-day management and Craig Mundie in charge of long-term product strategy.
Many decisions that led to antitrust litigation over Microsoft’s business practices have had Gates’ approval. In the 1998 United States v. Microsoft case, Gates gave deposition testimony that several journalists characterized as evasive. He argued with examiner David Boies over the contextual meaning of words like “compete”, “concerned” and “we”. BusinessWeek reported:
Early rounds of his deposition show him offering obfuscatory answers and saying ‘I don’t recall,’ so many times that even the presiding judge had to chuckle. Worse, many of the technology chief’s denials and pleas of ignorance were directly refuted by prosecutors with snippets of e-mail Gates both sent and received.
Gates later said that he had simply resisted attempts by Boies to mischaracterize his words and actions. As to his demeanor during the deposition, he said, “Did I fence with Boies? … I plead guilty. Whatever that penalty is should be levied against me: rudeness to Boies in the first degree.” Despite Gates’s denials, the judge ruled that Microsoft had committed monopolization and tying, and blocking competition, both in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Appearance in ads
Gates appeared in a series of ads to promote Microsoft in 2008. The first commercial, co-starring Jerry Seinfeld, is a 90-second talk between strangers as Seinfeld walks up on a discount shoe store (Shoe Circus) in a mall and notices Gates buying shoes inside. The salesman is trying to sell Mr. Gates shoes that are a size too big. As Gates is buying the shoes he holds up his discount card, which uses a slightly altered version of his own mugshot of his arrest in New Mexico in 1977 for a traffic violation. As they are walking out of the mall, Seinfeld asks Gates if he has melded his mind to other developers, after getting a yes, he then asks if they are working on a way to make computers edible, again getting a yes. Some say that this is an homage to Seinfeld’s own show about “nothing” (Seinfeld). In a second commercial in the series, Gates and Seinfeld are at the home of an average family trying to fit in with normal people.
Since leaving Microsoft, Gates continues his philanthropy and, among other projects, purchased the videos rights to the Messenger Lectures series titled The Character of Physical Law, given at Cornell University by Richard Feynman in 1964 and recorded by the BBC. The videos are available online to the public at Microsoft’s Project Tuva.
Gates married Melinda French from Dallas, TX on January 1, 1994. They have three children: daughters Jennifer Katharine Gates (born 1996) and Phoebe Adele Gates (born 2002), and son Rory John Gates (born 1999). The Gates’ home is an earth-sheltered house in the side of a hill overlooking Lake Washington in Medina. According to King County public records, as of 2006 the total assessed value of the property (land and house) is $125 million, and the annual property tax is $991,000.
His 66,000 sq. ft. estate has a 60-foot swimming pool with an underwater music system, as well as a 2500 sq. ft. gym and a 1000 sq. ft. dining room.
Also among Gates’s private acquisitions is the Codex Leicester, a collection of writings by Leonardo da Vinci, which Gates bought for $30.8 million at an auction in 1994. Gates is also known as an avid reader, and the ceiling of his large home library is engraved with a quotation from The Great Gatsby. He also enjoys playing bridge, tennis, and golf.
Gates was number one on the “Forbes 400” list from 1993 through to 2007 and number one on Forbes list of “The World’s Richest People” from 1995 to 2007 and 2009. In 1999, Gates’s wealth briefly surpassed $101 billion, causing the media to call him a “centibillionaire”. Since 2000, the nominal value of his Microsoft holdings has declined due to a fall in Microsoft’s stock price after the dot-com bubble burst and the multi-billion dollar donations he has made to his charitable foundations. In a May 2006 interview, Gates commented that he wished that he were not the richest man in the world because he disliked the attention it brought. Gates has several investments outside Microsoft, which in 2006 paid him a salary of $616,667, and $350,000 bonus totalling $966,667. He founded Corbis, a digital imaging company, in 1989. In 2004 he became a director of Berkshire Hathaway, the investment company headed by long-time friend Warren Buffett. In March 2010 Bill Gates was bumped down to the 2nd wealthiest man behind Carlos Slim.
Gates began to realize the expectations others had of him when public opinion mounted that he could give more of his wealth to charity. Gates studied the work of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller and in 1994 sold some of his Microsoft stock to create the William H. Gates Foundation. In 2000, Gates and his wife combined three family foundations into one to create the charitable Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which is the largest transparently operated charitable foundation in the world. The foundation is set up to allow benefactors access to how its money is being spent, unlike other major charitable organizations such as the Wellcome Trust. The generosity and extensive philanthropy of David Rockefeller has been credited as a major influence. Gates and his father have met with Rockefeller several times and have modeled their giving in part on the Rockefeller family‘s philanthropic focus, namely those global problems that are ignored by governments and other organizations. As of 2007, Bill and Melinda Gates were the second most generous philanthropists in America, having given over $28 billion to charity.
The foundation has also received criticism because it invests the assets that it has not yet distributed with the exclusive goal of maximizing the return on investment. As a result, its investments include companies that have been criticized for worsening poverty in the same developing countries where the Foundation is attempting to relieve poverty. These include companies that pollute heavily and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world. In response to press criticism, the foundation announced in 2007 a review of its investments to assess social responsibility. It subsequently cancelled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.
Time magazine named Gates one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century, as well as one of the 100 most influential people of 2004, 2005, and 2006. Time also collectively named Gates, his wife Melinda and U2’s lead singer Bono as the 2005 Persons of the Year for their humanitarian efforts. In 2006, he was voted eighth in the list of “Heroes of our time”. Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the “Top 50 Cyber Elite” by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999 and was included in The Guardian as one of the “Top 100 influential people in media” in 2001.
In 1994, he was honoured as the twentieth Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society. Gates has received honorary doctorates from Nyenrode Business Universiteit, Breukelen, The Netherlands, in 2000; the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, in 2002; Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, in 2005; Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in April 2007; Harvard University in June 2007; the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, in January 2008, and Cambridge University in June 2009. He was also made an honorary trustee of Peking University in 2007. Gates was also made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005, in addition to having entomologists name the Bill Gates flower fly, Eristalis gatesi, in his honor.
In November 2006, he and his wife were awarded the Order of the Aztec Eagle for their philanthropic work around the world in the areas of health and education, particularly in Mexico, and specifically in the program “Un país de lectores”. In October 2009, it was announced that Gates will be awarded the 2010 Bower Award for Business Leadership of The Franklin Institute for his achievements in business and for his philanthropic work.
- Cascade Investments LLC, a private investment and holding company, incorporated in United States, is controlled by Bill Gates, and is headquartered in the city of Kirkland, WA.
- bgC3, a new think-tank company founded by Bill Gates.
- Corbis, a digital image licensing and rights services company.
- TerraPower, a nuclear reactor design company.
Gates has authored two books:
Gates has appeared in at least one film:
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- ^ Guo, Jeff; McQueen, Rob, “Gates asks students to tackle world’s problems : Disease and education among biggest challenges”, The Tech, Volume 130, Issue 21, Friday, April 23, 2010
- ^ Guo, Jeff, “In interview, Gates describes philanthropic journey”, The Tech, Volume 130, Issue 21, April 23, 2010. (video & transcript). “After he spoke at Kresge Auditorium, Bill Gates sat down with The Tech to talk more about his college tour, his philanthropy, and the philosophy behind it.”
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- ^ Bill Gates Goes to Sundance, Offers an Education, ABC News, January 23, 2010
|Founded||Albuquerque, New Mexico (April 4, 1975 (1975-04-04))|
|Headquarters||One Microsoft Way, Redmond, Washington, United States|
|Key people||Steve Ballmer (CEO)
Bill Gates (Chairman)
Ray Ozzie (CSA)
Craig Mundie (CRSO)
Don Mattrick (Senior VP of Entertainment and Devices)
Windows Developer Tools
Games & Xbox 360 & Zune
Bing & Windows Live
|Services||Cloud Computing Software|
|Revenue||▼ $58.437 billion (2009)|
|Operating income||▼ $20.363 billion (2009)|
|Net income||▼ $14.569 billion (2009)|
|Total assets||▲ $77.888 billion (2009)|
|Total equity||▲ $39.558 billion (2009)|
|Employees||93,000 in more than 100 countries (2009)|
|Subsidiaries||List of acquisitions|
Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKEX: 4338) is a multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions. Headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, Financial Times Global 500 ranks it as the third largest company in the world for the first quarter of 2010. Established on April 4, 1975 to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, Microsoft rose to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Windows line of operating systems. The company’s initial public stock offering (IPO) was in 1986; the ensuing rise of the company’s stock price has made four billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees.
Throughout its history the company has been the target of criticism such as monopolistic business practices and anti-competitive strategies including refusal to deal and tying, privacy concerns and restrictions in the use of software, and misrepresentation in advertising. The U.S. Department of Justice and the European Commission have ruled against Microsoft for antitrust violations. Microsoft also has a mixed record on its environmental impact over time. Known for its interviewing process with off-the-wall questions such as “Why is a manhole cover round?”, Microsoft gives customer support over Usenet newsgroups and the World Wide Web and awards Microsoft MVP status to volunteers who are deemed helpful in assisting the company’s customers.
Following the launch of the Altair 8800, Bill Gates called the developers of the new microcomputer, Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), offering to demonstrate an implementation of the BASIC programming language for the system. After the demonstration in March 1975, MITS agreed to distribute Altair BASIC. Gates left Harvard University, moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico where MITS was located, and officially established Microsoft on April 4, 1975. The company’s first international office was founded on November 1, 1978, in Japan, titled “ASCII Microsoft.” On January 1, 1979, the company moved from Albuquerque to a new home in Bellevue, Washington.
Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was DOS (Disk Operating System) that brought the company its first real success. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft to provide a version of the CP/M operating system, which was set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer (PC). For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, branding it as MS-DOS, which IBM itself rebranded to PC-DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft secured the marketing rights to MS-DOS. Since the IBM copyrighted its BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer the BIOS in order for versions of DOS to run, releasing computers dubbed IBM PC compatibles. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS’s available software selection, Microsoft eventually became the leading OS vendor for the IBM PC compatible. The company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as a publishing division named Microsoft Press.
1985–1994: IPO, OS/2 and Windows
The sign at a main entrance to the Microsoft corporate campus in Redmond. In May 2005 the campus stretched more than 750,000 m² (approx. 8 million square feet) and contained over 30,000 employees.
In August 1985, Microsoft and IBM partnered in the development of a different operating system called OS/2. On November 20, 1985, Microsoft released its first retail version of Microsoft Windows, originally a graphical extension for its MS-DOS operating system. On March 13, 1986 the company went public with an initial public offering (IPO), with a starting initial offering price of $21.00 and ending at the first day of trading as at $28.00. The ensuing rise of the stock price has made four billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. In 1987, Microsoft eventually released their first version of OS/2 to OEMs.
In 1989, Microsoft introduced its flagship office suite, Microsoft Office. The software bundled separate office productivity applications, such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. On May 22, 1990 Microsoft launched Windows 3.0. The new version of Microsoft’s operating system boasted such new features as streamlined user interface graphics and improved protected mode capability for the Intel 386 processor; it sold over 100,000 copies in two weeks. Windows at the time generated more revenue for Microsoft than OS/2, and the company decided to move more resources from OS/2 to Windows. In the ensuing years, the popularity of OS/2 declined, and Windows quickly became the favored PC platform. In 1993, Microsoft released Windows NT 3.1, an operating system with the Windows 3.1 user interface but an entirely different kernel targeted at businesses.
During the transition from MS-DOS to Windows, the success of Microsoft Office allowed the company to gain ground on application-software competitors, such as WordPerfect and Lotus 1-2-3. According to The Register, Novell, an owner of WordPerfect for a time, alleged that Microsoft used its inside knowledge of the DOS and Windows kernels and of undocumented Application Programming Interface features to make Office perform better than its competitors. Eventually, Microsoft Office became the dominant business suite, with a market share far exceeding that of its competitors.
1995–2005: Internet, legal issues, and the XP era
In 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, a new version of the company’s flagship operating system which featured a completely new user interface, including a novel start button; more than a million copies of Microsoft Windows 95 were sold in the first four days after its release. The company also released its web browser, Internet Explorer, with the Windows 95 Plus! Pack in August 1995 and subsequent Windows versions. On, May 26, 1995, following Bill Gates’s internal “Internet Tidal Wave memo”, Microsoft began to redefine its offerings and expand its product line into computer networking and the World Wide Web. On August 24, 1995, it launched a major online service, MSN (Microsoft Network), as a direct competitor to AOL. MSN became an umbrella service for Microsoft’s online services. The company continued to branch out into new markets in 1996, starting with a joint venture with NBC Universal to create a new 24/7 cable news station, MSNBC. Microsoft entered the personal digital assistant (PDA) market in November with Windows CE 1.0, a new built-from-scratch version of their flagship operating system, specifically designed to run on low-memory, low-performance machines, such as handhelds and other small computers. Later in 1997, Internet Explorer 4.0 was released for both Mac OS and Windows, marking the beginning of the takeover of the browser market from rival Netscape. In October, the Justice Department filed a motion in the Federal District Court in which they stated that Microsoft had violated an agreement signed in 1994, and asked the court to stop the bundling of Internet Explorer with Windows.
The year 1998 was significant in Microsoft’s history, with Bill Gates appointing Steve Ballmer as president of Microsoft but remaining as Chair and CEO himself. The company released Windows 98, an update to Windows 95 that incorporated a number of Internet-focused features and support for new types of devices. Bill Gates officially handed over the CEO position to Steve Ballmer on January 13, 2000, creating a new position for himself as Chief Software Architect. Various companies including Microsoft formed the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance in October 1999 to, among other things, increase security and protect intellectual property through identifying changes in hardware and software. Critics decry the alliance as a way enforce indiscriminate restrictions over how consumers use software, and over how computers behave, a form of digital rights management; for example the scenario where a computer is not only secured for its owner, but also secured against its owner as well. On April 3, 2000, a judgment was handed down in the case of United States v. Microsoft, calling the company an “abusive monopoly” and ordering the company to split into two separate units. Part of this ruling was later overturned by a federal appeals court, and eventually settled with the U.S. Department of Justice in 2001.
In 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, the first version that encompassed the features of both its business and home product lines. Before XP was released, Microsoft had to maintain both the NT and the 9x codebase. XP introduced a new graphical user interface, the first such change since Windows 95. In late 2001, with the release of the Xbox, Microsoft entered the multi-billion-dollar game console market dominated by Sony and Nintendo. Microsoft encountered turmoil in March 2004 when antitrust legal action was brought against it by the European Union for abusing its dominance with the Windows operating system (see European Union Microsoft antitrust case), eventually resulting in a judgment to produce new versions of its Windows XP platform—called Windows XP Home Edition N and Windows XP Professional N—that did not include its Windows Media Player, as well as a fine of €497 million ($613 million).
2006 on: Vista, 7, and other transitions
Released in January 2007, the next version of Windows, Windows Vista, focused on features, security, and a redesigned user interface dubbed Aero. Microsoft Office 2007, released at the same time, features a “Ribbon” user interface which is a significant departure from its predecessors. Relatively strong sales of both titles helped to produce a record profit in 2007. Microsoft announced on February 21, 2008 that it will share information about its products and technology to make it easier for developers to create software that works with its products. and followed that up by providing such information. However, the European Union continued to demonstrate its dissatisfaction with the company for its lack of compliance with the March 2004 judgment and subsequently, on February 27, 2008 imposed a fine of €899 million ($1.4 billion), then the largest fine in the history of EU competition policy.
Bill Gates retired from his role as Chief Software Architect on June 27, 2008 while retaining other positions related to the company in addition to being an advisor for the company on key projects. Azure Services Platform, the company’s entry into the cloud computing market for Windows, launched on October 27, 2008. On February 12, 2009, Microsoft announced its intent to open a chain of Microsoft-branded retail stores, and on October 22, 2009 the first retail Microsoft Store opened in Scottsdale, Arizona; the same day the first store opened Windows 7 was officially released to the public. Windows 7’s focus was on refining Vista with ease of use features and performance enhancements, rather than a large reworking of Windows.
To be more precise in tracking performance of each unit and delegating responsibility, Microsoft reorganized into seven core business groups—each an independent financial entity—in April 2002. Later, on September 20, 2005, Microsoft announced a rationalization of its previous seven business groups into three core divisions. According to the company’s 2009 form 10-K, Microsoft has five product divisions: Client, Server and Tools, Online Services Business, Microsoft Business Division, and Entertainment and Devices Division.
Client, Server and Tools, Online Services Business
The company’s Client division produces the flagship Windows operating system line such as Windows 7. Server and Tools produces the server versions of Windows, such as Windows Server 2008 R2 as well as a set of development tools called Microsoft Visual Studio, Microsoft Silverlight, a web application framework, and Systems Management Server, a collection of tools providing remote-control abilities, patch management, software distribution and a hardware/software inventory. Other server products include: Microsoft SQL Server, a relational database management system, Microsoft Exchange Server, for certain business-oriented e-mail and scheduling features, Small Business Server, for messaging and other small business-oriented features; and Microsoft BizTalk Server, for business process management.
Microsoft produces a set of certification programs handled by the Server and Tools division designed to recognize individuals who have a minimal set of proficiencies in a specific role; this includes developers (“Microsoft Certified Solution Developer”), system/network analysts (“Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer”), trainers (“Microsoft Certified Trainers“) and administrators (“Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator” and “Microsoft Certified Database Administrator”). Microsoft Press, which publishes books, is also managed by the division. The Online Services Business division handles the online service MSN, the search engine Bing, and the Windows Live family of products and services. As of December 2009, the company also possesses an 18% ownership of the cable news channel MSNBC without any editorial control; however, the division develops the channel’s website, msnbc.com, in a joint venture with the channel’s co-owner, NBC Universal.
Business Division, Entertainment and Devices Division
The Microsoft Business Division produces Microsoft Office including Microsoft Office 2010, the company’s line of office software. The software product includes Word (a word processor), Access (a personal relational database application), Excel (a spreadsheet program), Outlook (Groupware, frequently used with Exchange Server), PowerPoint (presentation software), and Publisher (desktop publishing software). A number of other products were added later with the release of Office 2003 including Visio, Project, MapPoint, InfoPath and OneNote. The division also develops enterprise resource planning (ERP) software for companies under the Microsoft Dynamics brand. These include: Microsoft Dynamics AX, Microsoft Dynamics NAV, Microsoft Dynamics GP, and Microsoft Dynamics SL. They are targeted at varying company types and countries, and limited to organizations with under 7,500 employees. Also included under the Dynamics brand is the customer relationship management software Microsoft Dynamics CRM, part of the Azure Services Platform.
The Entertainment and Devices Division produces the Windows CE operating system for PDAs and Smartphones. Microsoft initially entered the mobile market through Windows CE for handheld devices, eventually developing into the Windows Phone operating system. Windows CE is designed for devices where the operating system may not directly be visible to the end user, in particular, appliances and cars. The division also produces Mac OS software including Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac and computer games that run on Windows PCs and other systems including titles such as Age of Empires, Halo and the Microsoft Flight Simulator series. It produces a line of reference works that include encyclopedias and atlases, under the name Encarta. Microsoft’s Entertainment and Devices Division also designs, markets, and manufactures hardware including the Xbox 360 game console, the handheld Zune media player, and the television-based Internet appliance MSN TV. In addition, Microsoft markets a number of other computing-related hardware products including mice, keyboards, joysticks, and gamepads, along with other game controllers.
Technical reference for developers and articles for various Microsoft magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal (or MSJ) are available through the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). MSDN also offers subscriptions for companies and individuals, and the more expensive subscriptions usually offer access to pre-release beta versions of Microsoft software. In April 2004 Microsoft launched a community site for developers and users, titled Channel9, which provides many modern features such as a wiki and an Internet forum. Another community site that provides daily videocasts and other services, On10.net, launched on March 3, 2006.
Most free technical support available through Microsoft is provided through online Usenet newsgroups (in the early days it was also provided on CompuServe). There are several of these newsgroups for nearly every product Microsoft provides, and often they are monitored by Microsoft employees. People who are helpful on the newsgroups can be elected by other peers or Microsoft employees for Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) status, which entitles people to a sort of special social status, in addition to possibilities for awards and other benefits.
Within Microsoft the expression “eating our own dog food” is used to describe the policy of using the latest Microsoft products inside the company in an effort to test them in “real-world” situations. Only prerelease and beta versions of products are considered dog food. This is usually shortened to just “dog food” and is used as noun, verb, and adjective. The company is also known for their hiring process, dubbed the “Microsoft interview“, which is notorious for off-the-wall questions such as “Why is a manhole cover round?” and is a process often mimicked in other organizations.
Microsoft hires many foreign workers as well as domestic ones, and is an outspoken opponent of the cap on H1B visas, which allow companies in the U.S. to employ certain foreign workers. Bill Gates claims the cap on H1B visas make it difficult to hire employees for the company, stating “I’d certainly get rid of the H1B cap.” Critics of H1B visas argue that increasing (or eliminating) the cap just takes more jobs away from U.S. citizens due to H1B workers working for lower salaries. In 2005, Microsoft received a 100% rating in the Corporate Equality Index from the Human Rights Campaign, a ranking of companies by how progressive the organization deems their policies concerning LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual) employees. Partly through the work of the Gay and Lesbian Employees at Microsoft (GLEAM) group, Microsoft added gender expression to its anti-discrimination policies in April 2005, and the Human Rights Campaign upgraded Microsoft’s Corporate Equality Index from its 86% rating in 2004 to a 100% rating.
The company is run by a board of directors made up of mostly company outsiders, as is customary for publicly traded companies. Members of the board of directors as of June 2010 are: Steve Ballmer, Dina Dublon, Bill Gates (chairman), Raymond Gilmartin, Reed Hastings, Maria Klawe, David Marquardt, Charles Noski, and Helmut Panke. The board members are elected every year at the annual shareholders’ meeting, and those who do not get a majority of votes must submit a resignation to the board, which will subsequently choose whether or not to accept the resignation. There are five committees within the board which oversee more specific matters. These committees include the Audit Committee, which handles accounting issues with the company including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the company; the Finance Committee, which handles financial matters such as proposing mergers and acquisitions; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters including nomination of the board; and the Antitrust Compliance Committee, which attempts to prevent company practices from violating antitrust laws.
When the company debuted its IPO in March 13, 1986, the stock price was $21. By the close of the first trading day, the stock had closed at $28, equivalent to 9.7 cents when adjusted for the company’s first nine stock splits. The initial close and ensuing rise in subsequent years made several Microsoft employees millions. The stock price peaked in 1999 at around $119 ($60.928 adjusting for splits). While the company has had nine stock splits, the first of which was in September 18, 1987, the company did not start offering a dividend until January 16, 2003. The dividend for the 2003 fiscal year was eight cents per share, followed by a dividend of sixteen cents per share the subsequent year. The company switched from yearly to quarterly dividends in 2005, for eight cents a share per quarter with a special one-time payout of three dollars per share for the second quarter of the fiscal year. Despite the company’s ninth split on February 2, 2003 and subsequent increases in dividend payouts, the price of Microsoft’s stock largely remained steady for years.
Microsoft’s business tactics, described by its own executives as “embrace, extend and extinguish,” initially embraces a competing standard or product, then extends it to produce their own version which is then incompatible with the standard, which in time extinguishes competition that does not or cannot use Microsoft’s new version. Various companies and governments sue Microsoft over this set of tactics, resulting in billions of dollars in rulings against the company. Microsoft claims that the original strategy is not anti-competitive, but rather an exercise of its discretion to implement features it believes customers want.
The electronics portion of Microsoft’s business (e.g. game consoles, computer peripherals, etc.) ranked 2nd worst compared to other 18 other companies in Greenpeace’s Greener Electronics guide in June, 2008; it received a score of 2.2/10. Microsoft’s main U.S. campus received a silver certification from the LEED program in 2008, and it installed over 2,000 solar panels on top of its buildings in its Silicon Valley campus, generating approximately 15 percent of the total energy needed by the facilities in April 2005. Its campus in Hyderabad, India also earned the company a gold certification from the LEED program as of 2010.
The company makes use of alternative forms of transit, including created one of the worlds largest private bus systems (the “Connector”) as well as encouraging employees and others to use regional public mass transit via subsidising fares. For on-campus transportation, the “Shuttle Connect” uses a large fleet of hybrid cars that save it over 20,000 gallons of fuel per year as of 2009.[In February 2010 however Microsoft took a stance against adding additional HOV and mass transit lanes to a bridge connecting Redmond to Seattle on the grounds that the bridge replacement cannot have further delay.
The “Get the facts” campaign argues that Windows Server has a lower TCO than Linux and lists a variety of studies in order to prove its case. Proponents of Linux unveiled their own study arguing that, contrary to one of Microsoft’s claims, Linux has lower management costs than Windows Server. Another study by the Yankee Group claims that upgrading from one version of Windows Server to another costs a significant fraction (a quarter to a third) of the switching costs from Windows Server to Linux, even for large enterprises, and that the other major reasons for a switch away from Windows servers were the increased security and reliability of Linux servers and a chance to escape the Microsoft “lock-in.” In 2004, the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) of the UK warned Microsoft that an ad from the campaign which claimed that “Linux was … 10 times more expensive than Windows Server 2003”, was “misleading”, as the hardware chosen for the Linux server was needlessly expensive. The ASA’s complaint was that “the measurements for Linux were performed on an IBM zSeries [mainframe], which was more expensive and did not perform as well as other IBM series.” The comparison was to Windows Server 2003 running on two 900 MHz Intel Xeon CPUs.
In 1987, Microsoft adopted its logo, the so-called “Pac-Man Logo”, designed by Scott Baker. According to the March 1987 Computer Reseller News Magazine, “The new logo, in Helvetica italic typeface, has a slash between the o and s to emphasize the “soft” part of the name and convey motion and speed.” Dave Norris, a Microsoft employee, ran an internal joke campaign to save the old logo, which was green, in all uppercase, and featured a fanciful letter O, nicknamed the blibbet, but it was discarded. Microsoft’s logo with the “Your potential. Our passion.” tagline below the main corporate name, is based on the slogan Microsoft had as of 2008. In 2002, the company started using the logo in the United States and eventually started a TV campaign with the slogan, changed from the previous tagline of “Where do you want to go today?“.
Microsoft logo as of 2010, with the slogan “Your potential. Our passion.”
List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft
Microsoft is an American multinational computer technology corporation based in Redmond, Washington. Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded the company in Albuquerque, New Mexico on April 4, 1975 after Gates went on leave from Harvard University. Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), the company that created the Altair 8800 microcomputer, was based in Albuquerque. Gates visited MITS to show them his implementation of the BASIC programming language using their system. Microsoft moved its headquarters to Bellevue, Washington on January 1, 1979, and then to Redmond on February 26, 1986, where it still remains. The company’s initial public offering was held on March 14, 1986. The stock, which eventually closed at US$27.75 a share, peaked at $29.25 a share shortly after the market opened for trading. At the time, Gates owned 45% of the company’s 24.7 million outstanding shares, and Allen owned roughly 25% of the shares. After the offering, Gates was worth $233.9 million and Microsoft had a market capitalization of $519.777 million. Microsoft has acquired 128 companies, purchased stakes in 60 companies, and made 24 divestments. Of the companies that Microsoft has acquired, 99 were based in the United States. Microsoft has not released the financial details for most of these mergers and acquisitions.
Microsoft’s first acquisition was Forethought on June 29, 1987, which was founded in 1983 and developed a presentation program that would later be known as Microsoft PowerPoint. On December 31, 1997, Microsoft acquired Hotmail for $500 million, its largest acquisition at the time, and integrated Hotmail into its MSN group of services. Hotmail, a free webmail service founded in 1996 by Jack Smith and Sabeer Bhatia, had more than 8.5 million subscribers earlier that month. Microsoft acquired Seattle-based Visio Corporation on January 7, 2000 for $1.375 billion. Visio, a software company, was founded in 1990 as Axon Corporation, and had its initial public offering in November 1995. The company developed the diagramming application software, Visio, which was integrated into Microsoft’s product line as Microsoft Visio after its acquisition. On July 12, 2002, Microsoft purchased Navision for $1.33 billion. The company, which developed the technology for the Microsoft Dynamics NAV enterprise resource planning software, was integrated into Microsoft as a new division named Microsoft Business Solutions, later renamed to Microsoft Dynamics. Microsoft purchased aQuantive, an advertising company, on August 13, 2007 for $6.333 billion, Microsoft’s largest acquisition. Before the acquisition, aQuantive was ranked 14th in terms of revenue among advertising agencies worldwide. aQuantive had three subsidiaries at the time of the acquisition: Avenue A/Razorfish, one of the world’s largest digital agencies, Atlas Solutions, and DRIVE Performance Solutions. Microsoft acquired the Norwegian enterprise search company Fast Search & Transfer on April 25, 2008 for $1.191 billion to boost its search technology.
Since Microsoft’s first acquisition in 1987, it has purchased an average of six companies a year. The company has purchased more than ten companies a year since 2005, and acquired 18 firms in 2006, the most in a single year, including Onfolio, Lionhead Studios, Massive Incorporated, ProClarity, Winternals Software, and Colloquis. Microsoft has made four acquisitions worth over one billion dollars: aQuantive, Fast Search & Transfer, Navision, and Visio Corporation. Microsoft has also purchased several stakes valued more than a billion dollars. It obtained an 11.5% stake in Comcast for $1 billion, a 22.98% stake in Telewest Communications for $2.263 billion, and a 3% stake in AT&T for $5 billion. Among Microsoft’s divestments, in which parts of the company are sold to another company, only Expedia, Inc. was sold for more than a billion dollars; USA Networks purchased the company on February 5, 2002 for $1.372 billion. On August 17, 2006, Microsoft acquired 7.92% of its own common stock for $20 billion.
|01987-06-29 June 29, 1987||Forethought||Computer software||United States||—|||
|01991-03-31 March 31, 1991||Consumers Software||Software||Canada||$&0000000020500000.00000020,500,000|||
|01992-06-29 June 29, 1992||Fox Software||PC database software||United States||$&0000000174800000.000000174,800,000|||
|01994-02-28 February 28, 1994||Softimage||Wholesale 3-D visualization software||Canada||$&0000000139000000.000000139,000,000|||
|01994-09-27 September 27, 1994||Altamira Software||Software||United States||—|||
|01994-11-01 November 1, 1994||NextBase||Software||United States||—|||
|01994-11-15 November 15, 1994||One Tree Software||Software||United States||—|||
|01995-02-23 February 23, 1995||RenderMorphics||3D graphics hardware||United States||—|||
|01995-07-10 July 10, 1995||Network Managers||Systems design||United States||—|||
|01995-10-17 October 17, 1995||Blue Ribbon Soundworks||Software||United States||—|||
|01995-11-06 November 6, 1995||Netwise||Computer software||United States||—|||
|01995-12-12 December 12, 1995||Bruce Artwick Organization||Programming||United States||—|||
|01996-01-16 January 16, 1996||Vermeer Technologies||Software||United States||—|||
|01996-03-06 March 6, 1996||VGA-Animation Software Div[note 1]||Software||Germany||—|||
|01996-03-12 March 12, 1996||Colusa Software||Software||United States||—|||
|01996-04-16 April 16, 1996||Exos||Video game controllers||United States||—|||
|01996-04-23 April 23, 1996||Aspect Software Engineering||Computer software||United States||$&0000000014150000.00000014,150,000|||
|01996-06-11 June 11, 1996||eShop||Software||United States||—|||
|01996-06-17 June 17, 1996||Electric Gravity||Electronic games||United States||—|||
|01996-11-01 November 1, 1996||Panorama Software Sys-On-Line[note 2]||Software||Canada||—|||
|01997-02-03 February 3, 1997||NetCarta||Internet software||United States||$&0000000020000000.00000020,000,000|||
|01997-04-30 April 30, 1997||WebTV Networks||Internet service provider||United States||$&0000000425000000.000000425,000,000|||
|01997-05-07 May 7, 1997||Dimension X||Java-based platforms||United States||—|||
|01997-06-13 June 13, 1997||Cooper & Peters||Programming||United States||—|||
|01997-06-30 June 30, 1997||LinkAge Software||Internet software development||United States||—|||
|01997-08-05 August 5, 1997||VXtreme||Internet video software||United States||—|||
|01997-12-31 December 31, 1997||Hotmail||Internet software||United States||$&0000000500000000.000000500,000,000|||
|01998-04-15 April 15, 1998||Firefly||Relationship management software||United States||$&0000000040000000.00000040,000,000|||
|01998-04-28 April 28, 1998||MESA Group||Data sharing software||United States||—|||
|01998-08-25 August 25, 1998||Valence Research||Internet software||United States||—|||
|01998-11-06 November 6, 1998||LinkExchange||Internet advertising network||United States||$&0000000265000000.000000265,000,000|||
|01999-01-11 January 11, 1999||FASA Interactive||Computer game software||United States||—|||
|01999-03-04 March 4, 1999||CompareNet||Shopping online||United States||—|||
|01999-03-26 March 26, 1999||Numinous Technologies||Software||United States||—|||
|01999-04-27 April 27, 1999||Interactive Objects-Digital||Web music software||United States||—|||
|01999-04-30 April 30, 1999||Jump Networks||Internet service provider||United States||—|||
|01999-06-07 June 7, 1999||ShadowFactor Software||Wholesale computer software||United States||—|||
|01999-06-15 June 15, 1999||Omnibrowse||Internet software||United States||—|||
|01999-06-28 June 28, 1999||Intrinsa||Defect detection software||United States||$&0000000058900000.00000058,900,000|||
|01999-07-01 July 1, 1999||Sendit||Application software||Sweden||$&0000000125420000.000000125,420,000|||
|01999-07-07 July 7, 1999||Zoomit||Encryption software||United States||—|||
|01999-07-21 July 21, 1999||STNC||Community software||United Kingdom||—|||
|01999-09-19 September 19, 1999||Softway Systems||Computer programming||United States||—|||
|01999-10-29 October 29, 1999||Entropic||Software||United States||—|||
|02000-01-07 January 7, 2000||Visio Corporation||Wholesale drawing software||United States||$&0000001375000000.0000001,375,000,000|||
|02000-02-29 February 29, 2000||Peach Networks||Digital TV services||Israel||—|||
|02000-03-17 March 17, 2000||Travelscape||Internet service provider||United States||$&0000000089750000.00000089,750,000|||
|02000-04-12 April 12, 2000||Titus Communications||Cable television||United States||$&0000000944800000.000000944,800,000|||
|02000-06-19 June 19, 2000||Bungie Software||Computer software||United States||—|||
|02000-07-12 July 12, 2000||NetGames||Software||United States||—|||
|02000-09-13 September 13, 2000||MongoMusic||Online music search engine||United States||$&0000000065000000.00000065,000,000|||
|02000-09-27 September 27, 2000||Pacific Microsonics||Digital audio technology||United States||—|||
|02001-03-17 March 17, 2001||Vacationspot||Internet service provider||United States||$&0000000070850000.00000070,850,000|||
|02001-04-05 April 5, 2001||Great Plains Software||Business management software||United States||$&0000000939884000.000000939,884,000|||
|02001-05-02 May 2, 2001||Intellisol International||Software||Canada||—|||
|02001-05-31 May 31, 2001||NCompass Labs||Internet software||Canada||$&0000000036000000.00000036,000,000|||
|02001-06-21 June 21, 2001||Maximal Intelligence||Software||Israel||$&0000000020000000.00000020,000,000|||
|02001-07-01 July 1, 2001||Yupi||Online Spanish Portal||United States||—|||
|02002-01-03 January 3, 2002||Korea Telecom||Telecommunications||South Korea||$&0000000500000000.000000500,000,000|||
|02002-03-11 March 11, 2002||Classic Custom Vacations||Travel agency||United States||$&0000000078000000.00000078,000,000|||
|02002-05-22 May 22, 2002||Sales Management Systems||Software||United States||—|||
|02002-07-12 July 12, 2002||Navision||Software programming||Denmark||$&0000001330000000.0000001,330,000,000|||
|02002-07-29 July 29, 2002||Mobilocity||Computer consulting||United States||—|||
|02002-09-10 September 10, 2002||XDegrees||Security software||United States||—|||
|02002-09-24 September 24, 2002||Rare||Software and video games||United Kingdom||$&0000000375000000.000000375,000,000|||
|02002-12-13 December 13, 2002||Vicinity||Online enterprise location||United States||$&0000000095849000.00000095,849,000|||
|02003-02-25 February 25, 2003||Connectix||Software||United States||—|||
|02003-03-03 March 3, 2003||DCG||Internet software||Australia||—|||
|02003-04-30 April 30, 2003||PlaceWare||Web conferencing||United States||$&0000000200000000.000000200,000,000|||
|02003-05-27 May 27, 2003||G.A. Sullivan||Information technology||United States||—|||
|02003-06-10 June 10, 2003||GeCAD Software||Antivirus technology||Romania||—|||
|02003-08-29 August 29, 2003||3DO Co-High Heat Baseball||Software||United States||$&0000000000450000.000000450,000|||
|02004-04-22 April 22, 2004||Encore Bus Solutions-IP Asts||IP assets||United States||—|||
|02004-04-26 April 26, 2004||ActiveViews||Reporting systems||United States||—|||
|02004-07-16 July 16, 2004||Lookout Software||Personal search tool||United States||—|||
|02004-12-16 December 16, 2004||GIANT Company Software||Anti-spyware||United States||—|||
|02005-03-02 March 2, 2005||en’tegrate||Software||United States||—|||
|02005-04-09 April 9, 2005||Groove Networks||Community software||United States||—|||
|02005-05-11 May 11, 2005||MessageCast||Messaging||United States||$&0000000007000000.0000007,000,000|||
|02005-05-31 May 31, 2005||Tsinghua-Shenxun-Cert Asts||Certain assets||China||$&0000000015000000.00000015,000,000|||
|02005-06-21 June 21, 2005||Sybari Software||Software||United States||—|||
|02005-08-29 August 29, 2005||Teleo||VoIP||United States||—|||
|02005-08-31 August 31, 2005||FrontBridge Technologies||Email protection||United States||—|||
|02005-09-19 September 19, 2005||Alacris||Certificate management software||United States||—|||
|02005-11-03 November 3, 2005||media-streams.com||Software||Switzerland||—|||
|02005-11-17 November 17, 2005||5th Finger||Mobile||Australia||$&0000000003153000.0000003,153,000|||
|02006-01-19 January 19, 2006||UMT-Software and IP Assets||Software||United States||—|||
|02006-02-13 February 13, 2006||MotionBridge||Search||France||$&0000000017858000.00000017,858,000|||
|02006-02-13 February 13, 2006||Seadragon Software||Software||United States||—|||
|02006-03-07 March 7, 2006||Apptimum||Software||United States||—|||
|02006-03-07 March 7, 2006||Onfolio||Internet software||United States||—|||
|02006-04-06 April 6, 2006||Lionhead Studios||Video games||United Kingdom||—|||
|02006-04-26 April 26, 2006||AssetMetrix||Enterprise software||Canada||—|||
|02006-05-04 May 4, 2006||Massive Incorporated||Video game advertising||United States||—|||
|02006-05-04 May 4, 2006||Vexcel||Mapping software||United States||—|||
|02006-05-15 May 15, 2006||DeepMetrix||Web log analysis||United States||—|||
|02006-06-06 June 6, 2006||ProClarity||Analysis software||United States||—|||
|02006-06-27 June 27, 2006||iView Multimedia||Digital asset management||United Kingdom||—|||
|02006-07-17 July 17, 2006||Softricity||application virtualization software||United States||—|||
|02006-07-18 July 18, 2006||Winternals Software||Software||United States||—|||
|02006-07-26 July 26, 2006||Whale Communications||Applications||United States||—|||
|02006-09-26 September 26, 2006||Gteko||Applications||Israel||—|||
|02006-10-02 October 2, 2006||DesktopStandard||Applications||United States||—|||
|02006-10-12 October 12, 2006||Colloquis||Natural language software||United States||—|||
|02007-03-09 March 9, 2007||Medstory||Internet search engine||United States||—|||
|02007-03-26 March 26, 2007||devBiz Business Solutions||Software tools||United States||—|||
|02007-05-03 May 3, 2007||ScreenTonic||Advertising and marketing||France||—|||
|02007-05-03 May 3, 2007||Tellme Networks||Mobile phone software||United States||—|||
|02007-06-04 June 4, 2007||Engyro||Information technology||United States||—|||
|02007-06-07 June 7, 2007||Stratature||Application management||United States||—|||
|02007-06-29 June 29, 2007||Savvis Inc-Data Centers||Networking||United States||$&0000000200000000.000000200,000,000|||
|02007-08-13 August 13, 2007||AdECN||Ad Exchange||United States||—|||
|02007-08-13 August 13, 2007||aQuantive||Digital marketing||United States||$&0000006333000000.0000006,333,000,000|||
|02007-10-02 October 2, 2007||Jellyfish.com||Search engine||United States||—|||
|02007-10-05 October 5, 2007||Parlano||Enterprise messaging software||United States||—|||
|02007-10-29 October 29, 2007||Global Care Solutions-Assets||Assets||Thailand||—|||
|02007-11-01 November 1, 2007||HOB Business Solutions||Information technology||Denmark||—|||
|02007-12-12 December 12, 2007||Multimap.com||Mapping||United Kingdom||—|||
|02008-01-22 January 22, 2008||Calista Technologies||Software||United States||—|||
|02008-02-07 February 7, 2008||Caligari Corporation||Software||United States||—|||
|02008-02-27 February 27, 2008||YaData||Software||Israel||—|||
|02008-03-14 March 14, 2008||Rapt||Advertising yield management software||United States||—|||
|02008-03-19 March 19, 2008||Komoku||Rootkit security software||United States||$&0000000005000000.0000005,000,000|||
|02008-03-31 March 31, 2008||90 Degree Software||Business intelligence software||Canada||—|||
|02008-04-14 April 14, 2008||Farecast||Online search software||United States||$&0000000075000000.00000075,000,000|||
|02008-04-15 April 15, 2008||Danger||Mobile Internet software||United States||$&0000000500000000.000000500,000,000|||
|02008-04-25 April 25, 2008||Fast Search & Transfer||Enterprise search||Norway||$&0000001191000000.0000001,191,000,000|||
|02008-05-26 May 26, 2008||Kidaro||Software||United States||—|||
|02008-06-04 June 4, 2008||Quadreon||Software||Belgium||—|||
|02008-06-18 June 18, 2008||Navic Networks||Management software||United States||—|||
|02008-06-26 June 26, 2008||Mobicomp||Mobile applications||Portugal||—|||
|02008-08-11 August 11, 2008||Powerset||Semantic Search||United States||—|||
|02008-09-16 September 16, 2008||DATAllegro||Data software||United States||—|||
|02008-09-28 September 28, 2008||Greenfield Online||Search and e-commerce services||United States||$&0000000486000000.000000486,000,000|||
|02009-05-07 May 7, 2009||BigPark||Interactive online gaming||Canada|||
|02009-09-22 September 22, 2009||Interactive Supercomputing||Software||United States|||
|02009-12-10 December 10, 2009||Opalis Software||Software||Canada|||
|02009-12-10 December 10, 2009||Sentillion, Inc.||Identity and Access Management Software for Healthcare||United States|||
|01989-06-15 June 15, 1989||Santa Cruz Operation[note 3]||Wholesale computer software||United States||—|||
|01991-03-18 March 18, 1991||Dorling Kindersley[note 4]||Reference books||United Kingdom||$&0000000014340000.00000014,340,000|||
|01994-06-21 June 21, 1994||Stac Electronics||Data compression software||United States||$&0000000039900000.00000039,900,000|||
|01995-01-19 January 19, 1995||UUNet||Internet service provider||United States||—|||
|01995-05-30 May 30, 1995||Wang Laboratories||Software consulting||United States||$&0000000090000000.00000090,000,000|||
|01995-10-12 October 12, 1995||Individual||On-line information retrieval||United States||—|||
|01996-04-01 April 1, 1996||Mobile Telecom Technologies[note 5]||Cellular telephones||United States||$&0000000025000000.00000025,000,000|||
|01996-04-22 April 22, 1996||Helicon Publishing||Electronic books||United States||—|||
|01996-09-09 September 9, 1996||SingleTrac||Software||United States||—|||
|01996-10-01 October 1, 1996||WebTV Networks||Internet service provider||United States||—|||
|01996-10-28 October 28, 1996||VDOnet||Internet services||United States||—|||
|01997-02-03 February 3, 1997||CMGI[note 6]||Direct mail||United States||$&0000000020000000.00000020,000,000|||
|01997-02-18 February 18, 1997||Digital Anvil||Computer game software||United States||—|||
|01997-03-03 March 3, 1997||Interse||Internet software||United States||—|||
|01997-06-30 June 30, 1997||Comcast[note 7]||Cable television||United States||$&0000001000000000.0000001,000,000,000|||
|01997-08-06 August 6, 1997||Apple Computer[note 8]||Personal computers||United States||$&0000000150000000.000000150,000,000|||
|01997-08-19 August 19, 1997||Progressive Networks[note 9]||Internet software||United States||$&0000000030000000.00000030,000,000|||
|01997-09-11 September 11, 1997||Lernout & Hauspie Speech[note 10]||Multilingual software||Belgium||$&0000000045000000.00000045,000,000|||
|01997-09-23 September 23, 1997||E-Stamp[note 11]||Internet software||United States||—|||
|01998-03-04 March 4, 1998||General Magic||Community software||United States||$&0000000006000000.0000006,000,000|||
|01998-03-06 March 6, 1998||WavePhore[note 12]||Radio and television equipment||United States||—|||
|01998-06-18 June 18, 1998||Pluto Technologies||Network and storage||United States||—|||
|01998-12-14 December 14, 1998||Qwest Communications[note 13]||Telecommunications||United States||$&0000000200000000.000000200,000,000|||
|01999-01-06 January 6, 1999||SkyTel Communications[note 14]||Cellular telephones||United States||—|||
|01999-01-31 January 31, 1999||United Pan-Europe Comm NV[note 15]||Broadband communities||Netherlands||$&0000000300000000.000000300,000,000|||
|01999-02-01 February 1, 1999||NTL[note 16]||Communications||United Kingdom||$&0000000500000000.000000500,000,000|||
|01999-02-02 February 2, 1999||Banyan[note 17]||Software||United States||$&0000000010000000.00000010,000,000|||
|01999-03-02 March 2, 1999||Dialogic||Computer telephony||United States||$&0000000024200000.00000024,200,000|||
|01999-03-08 March 8, 1999||Reciprocal||Copyright protection||United States||—|||
|01999-04-01 April 1, 1999||TV Cabo Portugal SA||Cable television||Portugal||$&0000000038600000.00000038,600,000|||
|01999-04-10 April 10, 1999||Lernout & Hauspie Speech||Multilingual software||Belgium||$&0000000015000000.00000015,000,000|||
|01999-06-08 June 8, 1999||Inprise||Computer software||United States||$&0000000125000000.000000125,000,000|||
|01999-06-08 June 8, 1999||NaviSite[note 18]||Internet service provider||United States||—|||
|01999-06-19 June 19, 1999||AT&T[note 19]||Telecommunications||United States||$&0000005000000000.0000005,000,000,000|||
|01999-06-22 June 22, 1999||Concentric Network||IP-based networks||United States||$&0000000050000000.00000050,000,000|||
|01999-07-05 July 5, 1999||WebMD||Web-based health information||United States||$&0000000250000000.000000250,000,000|||
|01999-08-20 August 20, 1999||Tuttle Decision Systems||Mortgage pricing information||United States||—|||
|01999-08-25 August 25, 1999||Rogers Communications||Radio and television stations||Canada||$&0000000405120000.000000405,120,000|||
|01999-12-03 December 3, 1999||Korea Thrunet[note 20]||Internet service provider||South Korea||$&0000000036000000.00000036,000,000|||
|01999-12-28 December 28, 1999||Globo Cabo[note 21]||Cable television||Brazil||$&0000000126000000.000000126,000,000|||
|01999-12-30 December 30, 1999||CommTouch Software[note 22]||Community security software||Israel||$&0000000020000000.00000020,000,000|||
|01999-12-31 December 31, 1999||Gigamedia[note 23]||Internet service provider||Taiwan||$&0000000031470000.00000031,470,000|||
|02000-01-24 January 24, 2000||Intertainer||Interactive systems||United States||$&0000000056000000.00000056,000,000|||
|02000-01-24 January 24, 2000||VerticalNet[note 24]||Management solutions||United States||$&0000000100000000.000000100,000,000|||
|02000-02-23 February 23, 2000||BroadBand Office||Communication||United States||$&0000000025000000.00000025,000,000|||
|02000-03-02 March 2, 2000||Ecoss[note 25]||Computer programming||Japan||$&0000000000046000.00000046,000|||
|02000-03-13 March 13, 2000||RealNames[note 26]||Internet navigation||United States||—|||
|02000-03-14 March 14, 2000||MEASAT Broadcast Network[note 27]||Television broadcasting||Malaysia||$&0000000100000000.000000100,000,000|||
|02000-04-14 April 14, 2000||Best Buy||Retail stores||United States||$&0000000200000000.000000200,000,000|||
|02000-07-07 July 7, 2000||Telewest Communications[note 28]||Cable television||United States||$&0000002263000000.0000002,263,000,000|||
|02000-07-13 July 13, 2000||Blixer Net||Online telecommunications||Italy||—|||
|02000-08-04 August 4, 2000||CAIS Internet||Internet access||United States||$&0000000040000000.00000040,000,000|||
|02000-10-02 October 2, 2000||Corel Corporation[note 29]||Software||Canada||$&0000000089370000.00000089,370,000|||
|02000-11-29 November 29, 2000||Chyron Corporation[note 30]||Digital graphics||United States||$&0000000006000000.0000006,000,000|||
|02001-02-12 February 12, 2001||Audible.com||Online audio retail||United States||$&0000000010000000.00000010,000,000|||
|02001-07-23 July 23, 2001||Sendo[note 31]||Mobile handset||United Kingdom||—|||
|02002-02-14 February 14, 2002||USA Networks[note 32]||Television stations||United States||—|||
|02005-11-03 November 3, 2005||ByteTaxi||Software||United States||—|||
|02008-04-08 April 8, 2008||OKWave[note 33]||On-line community site||Japan||$&0000000002515000.0000002,515,000|||
|02008-06-12 June 12, 2008||Zignals[note 34]||Online trading||Ireland||—|||
|Date||Acquirer||Target company||Target business||Acquirer country||Value (INR)||References|
|01989-03-31 March 31, 1989||Steven Ballmer||Microsoft[note 35]||Wholesale computer software||United States||$&0000000046200000.00000046,200,000|||
|01992-06-17 June 17, 1992||Microsoft||Microsoft[note 36]||Wholesale computer software||United States||$&0000000063750000.00000063,750,000|||
|01994-07-06 July 6, 1994||Microsoft||Microsoft[note 37]||Wholesale computer software||United States||$&0000000348000000.000000348,000,000|||
|01994-12-22 December 22, 1994||TCI Technology Ventures||MSN[note 38]||Internet service provider||United States||$&0000000125000000.000000125,000,000|||
|01996-11-15 November 15, 1996||Microsoft||MSN[note 39]||Internet service provider||United States||$&0000000125000000.000000125,000,000|||
|01996-12-19 December 19, 1996||Proginet||TransAccess||Software||United States||$&0000000001740000.0000001,740,000|||
|01998-08-03 August 3, 1998||Avid Technology||Softimage||3-D visualization software||Canada||$&0000000284295000.000000284,295,000|||
|01999-09-21 September 21, 1999||Ticketmaster Online-CitySearch||MSN Sidewalk||Internet city guide||United States||$&0000000340000000.000000340,000,000|||
|02000-02-24 February 24, 2000||Electronic Arts||DreamWorks Interactive||Computer programs||United States||—|||
|02000-08-10 August 10, 2000||Envoy Communications||Sage Information Consultants||Consulting||Canada||$&0000000023730000.00000023,730,000|||
|02000-09-01 September 1, 2000||Jupiter Telecommunications||Titus Communications||Cable television||Japan||—|||
|02000-12-31 December 31, 2000||Technology Crossover Ventures||Expedia, Inc.[note 40]||Online travel||United States||$&0000000050000000.00000050,000,000|||
|02001-06-26 June 26, 2001||CNBC||MSN MoneyCentral||Financial information||United States||—|||
|02002-02-05 February 5, 2002||USA Networks||Expedia, Inc.||Online travel||United States||$&0000001372000000.0000001,372,000,000|||
|02002-07-26 July 26, 2002||Liberty Media||Chofu CATV||Cable television||Japan||$&0000000016000000.00000016,000,000|||
|02002-08-12 August 12, 2002||Agency.com||KPE Inc-Certain Assets||—||United States||—|||
|02003-02-22 February 22, 2003||The Reynolds and Reynolds Company||MSN Autos-Dealerpoint Business||Online auto retail||United States||—|||
|02003-10-31 October 31, 2003||Perri Croshaw||HWW Ltd-Women’s Money Magazine||Magazines||Australia||—|||
|02003-11-04 November 4, 2003||Northgate Information Solutions||PWA Group||Software||United Kingdom||$&0000000007052000.0000007,052,000|||
|02005-01-14 January 14, 2005||The Washington Post Company||Slate||Online magazine||United States||—|||
|02005-02-28 February 28, 2005||Ubisoft Entertainment||Microsoft Game-Sports Games||Sports games||United States||—|||
|02006-08-17 August 17, 2006||Microsoft||Microsoft[note 41]||Wholesale computer software||United States||$&0000020000000000.00000020,000,000,000|||
|02007-05-11 May 11, 2007||MacDonald Dettwiler||Vexcel Canada||Mapping software||United States||—|||
|02008-09-22 September 22, 2008||Microsoft||Microsoft[note 42]||Wholesale computer software||United States||$&0000036200000000.00000036,200,000,000|||